These deposits have given rise to expectations of yielding at least 40 liters of shale oil per tonne of oil shale, using the Fischer Assay. • OIL SHALE (noun) Sense 1. [8][40][45][46], As of 2009[update], 80% of oil shale used globally is extracted in Estonia, mainly due to the Oil-shale-fired power plants. Previous of Shale. by Penguin Random House LLC and HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, Get the latest news and gain access to exclusive updates and offers. Pronunciation /ˈSHāl ˌoil/ /ˈʃeɪl ˌɔɪl/ See synonyms for shale oil. [3][63] Some oil shales yield sulfur, ammonia, alumina, soda ash, uranium, and nahcolite as shale-oil extraction byproducts. [8] Oil shale serves for oil production in Estonia, Brazil, and China; for power generation in Estonia, China, and Germany; for cement production in Estonia, Germany, and China; and for use in chemical industries in China, Estonia, and Russia. This usually takes place between 450 °C (842 °F) and 500 °C (932 °F). Shale Oil: oil extracted from oil shale by heating.. "[12] Their common defining feature is low solubility in low-boiling organic solvents and generation of liquid organic products on thermal decomposition. What does shale oil mean? By comparison with West Texas Intermediate, the benchmark standard for crude oil in the futures-contract market, the Green River shale oil sulfur content ranges from near 0% to 4.9% (in average 0.76%), where West Texas Intermediate's sulfur content has a maximum of 0.42%. Conjugation Documents Grammar Dictionary Expressio. A 1984 study estimated the EROEI of the various known oil-shale deposits as varying between 0.7–13.3[79] The supply of oil in the first half of the 21st century, and its strategic implications for the U.S. "Global oil shale issues and perspectives. [87] Depending on technology, above-ground retorting uses between one and five barrels of water per barrel of produced shale-oil. Last 50 years Examples of oil-bearing shales are the Bakken Formation, Pierre Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Eagle Ford Formation. Paraffin wax (or petroleum wax) is a soft colorless solid derived from petroleum, coal or shale oil that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms. SMART Vocabulary: related words and phrases. although known oil-shale extraction development projects assert an EROEI between 3 and 10. It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F), and its boiling point is above 370 °C (698 °F). noun. The hypothetical unit would see a cost reduction of 35–70% after producing its first 500 million barrels (79 million cubic metres). [66] The sulfur content in shale oil from Jordan's oil shales may rise even up to 9.5%. Oil shales vary considerably in their mineral content, chemical composition, age, type of kerogen, and depositional history and not all oil shales would necessarily be classified as shales in the strict sense. Example sentences with "shale play", translation memory. [57][88][89][90] A 2008 programmatic environmental impact statement issued by the US Bureau of Land Management stated that surface mining and retort operations produce 2 to 10 U.S. gallons (7.6 to 37.9 l; 1.7 to 8.3 imp gal) of waste water per 1 short ton (0.91 t) of processed oil shale. Download Wordinn Dictionary for PC. [45] However, oil shale use for production of these items remains small or only in its experimental stages. poisonous atmosphere? Add your entry in the Collaborative Dictionary. Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. [72] A 2004 report by the United States Department of Energy stated that both the Shell technology and technology used in the Stuart Oil Shale Project could be competitive at prices above $25 per barrel, and that the Viru Keemia Grupp expected full-scale production to be economical at prices above $18 per barrel ($130/m3). To take off the shell or coat of. A Scientific-Technical Journal", "Related Oil Shale Publications and Data", "30th Oil Shale Symposium, October 18–22, 2010", "Oil Shale: Toward a Strategic Unconventional Fuels Supply Policy", International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oil_shale&oldid=991545428, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 16:54. Wordfinder. [86], Water concerns are sensitive issues in arid regions, such as the western US and Israel's Negev Desert, where plans exist to expand oil-shale extraction despite a water shortage. General composition of oil shales constitutes inorganic matrix, bitumens, and kerogen. True in-situ processes do not involve mining the oil shale. [57], The extraction of the useful components of oil shale usually takes place above ground (ex-situ processing), although several newer technologies perform this underground (on-site or in-situ processing). Oil shale can also be burned directly in furnaces as a low-grade fuel for power generation and district heating or used as a raw material in chemical and construction-materials processing. n an oil distilled from shales and used as fuel. Exact: 474. Degradation of pyridines in the environment. [10][11] According to the petrologist Adrian C. Hutton of the University of Wollongong, oil shales are not "geological nor geochemically distinctive rock but rather 'economic' term. By 2006, only four technologies remained in commercial use: Kiviter, Galoter, Fushun, and Petrosix. Look up in Linguee; Suggest as a translation of "shale oil" Copy; DeepL Translator Linguee. [81] These include acid drainage induced by the sudden rapid exposure and subsequent oxidation of formerly buried materials, the introduction of metals including mercury[82] into surface-water and groundwater, increased erosion, sulfur-gas emissions, and air pollution caused by the production of particulates during processing, transport, and support activities. Some commentators compare the proposed American oil-shale industry to the Athabasca oil-sands industry (the latter enterprise generated over 1 million barrels (160,000 cubic metres) of oil per day in late 2007), stating that "the first-generation facility is the hardest, both technically and economically". Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales). Proper usage and audio pronunciation (plus IPA phonetic transcription) of the word shale oil. Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. Although the Estonian and Chinese oil-shale industries continued to grow after World War II, most other countries abandoned their projects due to high processing costs and the availability of cheaper petroleum. English Dictionaries. "[30][33][34], Modern industrial mining of oil shale began in 1837 in Autun, France, followed by exploitation in Scotland, Germany, and several other countries.[35][36]. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers. Upon cooling the vapor, the liquid shale oil—an unconventional oil—is separated from combustible oil-shale gas (the term shale gas can also refer to gas occurring naturally in shales). Translation Spell check Synonyms Conjugation. Reverso for Windows. [3] Oil shale gas has served as a substitute for natural gas, but as of 2009[update], producing oil shale gas as a natural-gas substitute remained economically infeasible. A report by EASAC to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy of the European Parliament, "Importance of Future Oil Shale Industry Plans for Estonia", "Oil Shale Fired Power Plant - Enefit.jo", "Jordan moves ahead with $2.1 bln oil shale power plant", Strategic Significance of America's Oil Shale Resource. Environmentalists oppose production and usage of oil shale, as it creates even more greenhouse gases than conventional fossil fuels. shale oil in British English. The oil ministry plans to amend the Petroleum & Natural Gas Rules 1959 to include shale in the definition of petroleum, a change that would allow private companies to explore and produce the resource in the blocks they already operate. Oil obtained from bituminous shale. And best of all it's ad free, so sign up now and start using at home or in the classroom. Britons of the Iron Age also used to polish it and form it into ornaments. Copyright © 2010 by However, most of these methods remain in the experimental phase. I don’t know about you, but I’m already salivating at the prospect of Christmas food. Shale meaning in Arabic has been searched 2267 times till 02 Oct, 2020. Create an account and sign in to access this FREE content, With more seats made available, it should be a, The board is expected to meet today to consider a formal, He paid tribute to her in a very emotional. House Of Representatives", "A Reporter at Large:Unconventional Crude", "Is Oil Shale The Answer To America's Peak-Oil Challenge? ... English American English. Oil shale, also known as kerogen shale, is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales) can be produced. Definition of shale oil in English: shale oil. The article portrayed coal liquefaction as less expensive, generating more oil, and creating fewer environmental impacts than extraction from oil shale. However, according to the IEA most of used energy can be provided by burning the spent shale or oil-shale gas.[80]. A shell or husk; a cod or pod. [6][7] In 2002, about 97% of air pollution, 86% of total waste and 23% of water pollution in Estonia came from the power industry, which uses oil shale as the main resource for its power production. oil shale n a fine-grained shale containing oil, which can be extracted by heating [62], Industry can use oil shale as a fuel for thermal power-plants, burning it (like coal) to drive steam turbines; some of these plants employ the resulting heat for district heating of homes and businesses. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. Last 100 years [11] The most commonly used classification of oil shales, developed between 1987 and 1991 by Adrian C. Hutton, adapts petrographic terms from coal terminology. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. an oil distilled from shales and used as fuel. [6][7] Estonia and China have well-established oil shale industries, and Brazil, Germany, and Russia also utilize oil shale.[8]. [22], As source rocks for most conventional oil reservoirs, oil shale deposits are found in all world oil provinces, although most of them are too deep to be exploited economically. In order to run a profitable operation, the price of crude oil would need to remain above these levels. Between 1946 and 1952, a marine type of Dictyonema shale served for uranium production in Sillamäe, Estonia, and between 1950 and 1989 Sweden used alum shale for the same purposes. You have searched the English word "Shale" which meaning "السجيل" in Arabic. in order to force open existing cracks (= narrow openings) and take out oil or gas. 19(4): 309-340. Our new online dictionaries for schools provide a safe and appropriate environment for children. Modified in-situ processes involve removing part of the oil shale and bringing it to the surface for modified in-situ retorting in order to create permeability for gas flow in a rubble chimney. Most conversion technologies involve heating shale in the absence of oxygen to a temperature at which kerogen decomposes (pyrolyses) into gas, condensable oil, and a solid residue. Effects of Oil Shale Technologies", "Critics charge energy, water needs of oil shale could harm environment", "Greenpeace happy with part closure of shale oil plant", Discovery Of Water Ice Nearly Everywhere In The Solar System, "Oil Shale. Dr. A. Zuppero, U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Shake Up: change the arrangement or position of.. Download Now. shale oil n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. [16], Geologists can classify oil shales on the basis of their composition as carbonate-rich shales, siliceous shales, or cannel shales. "Resources" refers to all oil shale deposits, while "reserves", represents those deposits from which producers can extract oil shale economically using existing technology. (type of petroleum) petróleo de esquisto loc nom m locución nominal masculina : Unidad léxica estable formada de dos o más palabras que funciona como sustantivo masculino ("ojo de buey", "agua mala"). [41] In 1986, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 which among other things abolished the United States' Synthetic Liquid Fuels Program. Assuming an increase in output of 25 thousand barrels per day (4.0×10^3 m3/d) during each year after the start of commercial production, RAND predicts the costs would decline to $35–48 per barrel ($220–300/m3) within 12 years. It may contain higher concentrations of olefins, oxygen, and nitrogen than conventional crude oil. Shale Oil in Detail. oil shale - shale from which oil can be obtained by heating. It has sought public comments in the next two weeks for the proposed amendment. Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the TAMIL language with its free online services. English Dictionaries. ", "Shell's ingenious approach to oil shale is pretty slick", "New directions for shale oil:path to a secure new oil supply well into this century: on the example of Australia", "Co-liquefaction of kukersite oil shale and pine wood in supercritical water", "Kinetics of co-pyrolysis of Tarfaya (Morocco) oil shale with high-density polyethylene", American Association for the Advancement of Science, "Unconventional Oil and Gas Production. 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