A decade ago, most software solutions stored data on hard drives. It is mainly a way for companies to improve communication and bolster project efficiency. But excellent collaboration requires excellent communication. In either case, teams need to establish a protocol for handling file storage. From communication to project management, technology offers an abundance of options. Most of these services perform fairly well with a fast computer and fast internet connection. working together online, for example, working on a project or assignment or organising an event using online collaboration tools for activities such as: Calendar management Time tracing ... o What is required for using online collaboration tools? But still, we want to share them with you. There are many benefits to using online collaboration tools to complete projects. All Data Subject Access Requests (DSARs) must be submitted through the Planview DSAR portal. A decade ago, most software solutions stored data on hard drives. The success of your project depends on how well you’re able to collaborate with your team members. Iowa City, IA 52244-2717. If you’re already using a collaborative project management software, then you already have access to some type of team management software and probably a few tools for collaboration as well. Features like Kanban boards and Gantt charts allow managers and teams to: Another helpful feature that you might want to consider is time tracking. Planview has appointed a Data Privacy Officer (DPO) for ensuring processing is lawful. From instant messaging to video conferencing tools (the best alternative to face-to-face meetings), there are many options for team collaboration tools: First of all, because it vastly improves communication. Planview, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Use rubrics. This made remote collaboration challenging, as you were restricted to the computers your software was loaded on. The best way to check the quality of your connection is to run a test ahead of time. On the other hand, when team members are included in a platform designed to increase collaboration and keep your workflow organized, people tend to work smarter and get more accomplished. Remote employees and teams, in general, love using monday.com … PO Box 2717 To me online collaboration is not an exact equivalent of physical collaboration. Provide timely assessment feedback. Visit our News Feed for our latest posts. For instance, ezTalks Cloud Meeting can allow up to 500 … The project management software and platform makes it simple for internal and external stakeholders to leave in-context feedback on videos, images, PDFs, and more. Below I have shared some of the ways (and not 6!) Change ). Others have a limit on the overall storage capacity for a team. that I think can impact the quality of collaboration. You’ll need a smart management solution that keeps you connected with your team members at all times. Collaborating Online Improves Communication. Here are few examples: 1. Which Collaboration Tools Should You Use? How can the use of collaboration tools be increased? To get the most of cloud technology, look for a collaboration platform that allows you to upload documents onto cloud storage, where you can then share and collaborate with team members and stakeholders. And without proper communication, projects are more likely to fail. ( Log Out /  Good quality collaboration has an impact on my energy and enjoyment for projects, the quality of relationship I have with people and ultimately makes us more productive which impacts our bottom line, but it’s not straight forward. 5 Benefits of Online Collaboration. Regardless of whether you’re collaborating remotely with team members or working together in an office setting, these tools make it easier to record and track progress, share updates, and ensure that everyone is working on the right tasks. Filestage gives teams the easiest possible way to manage the content review process. Users can also create polls, assign tasks and set reminders. Online Communication Tools 1. monday.com. Cloud technology and software-as-a-service (SaaS) platforms enable you to retrieve data from anywhere, not just office computers. What Are The Advantages of Online Collaboration? Collaboration tools can route work through a process, distribute pieces and tasks to involved parties, and help to coordinate activities. These days, collaborating has never been easier. More online collaboration tools spring up every year, while existing ones are constantly improving their features and functionality. Team members aren’t strictly confined to the office setting anymore now that remote work has become more widespread. Use a reflective process. Value learner work and effort from the very beginning. By working on a platform that makes it easier for team members, managers, and stakeholders to come together to share ideas, you’re able to reduce the likelihood of human error or scope creep, both of which can be detrimental to your project’s success. Enter your email address to subscribe and receive notifications of new posts by email. A successful online collaboration tool needs to be easy to use and set up. People can’t collaborate if they don’t communicate. If you want to hold an online brainstorming session, for example, it helps to have mind-mapping and flow chart tools, sort of like a whiteboard. Every business can benefit from great teamwork. A good project management solution is one that brings everyone together. Companies and organisations are attracted by the cost-effective technology allowing employees to work together anywhere, at any time using any internet-enabled device. Unfortunately, team collaboration often goes poorly. A simple form of teleconference can be a meeting between two people over a telephone. Document management 2. What’s more, project management solutions that include the four elements mentioned above further enhance the workflow by increasing project transparency. ( Log Out /  With conferences that have many people remotely viewing, such video delivery (one to many) is usually handled by a server so you only need sufficient bandwidth for your own connection. Besides using tools, make sure other people know your intentions, plans, tasks, and work-related projects. Along with the workflow tools mentioned above, it’s important to have a solution that allows you to map out your workload, letting you arrange projects by their status and priority. You’ll find insights from subject It may be necessary to purchase an Internet service package with more download speed than you feel you need in order to get enough upload speed. Services like Zoom.us, Adobe Connect, BlackBoard Collaborate, and Microsoft Lync have additional tools useful for online conferencing and education. The most common reason for using collaboration tools is to share documents (27% said they used their tools for this). Artificial Intelligence: What Does it Mean for Businesses? Collaboration is key, whether you’re selling floral designs or building the next smartphone app. In the span of his 20 year career in the technology space, Jason’s experience has run the gamut from roles in Fortune 1000 companies all the way to the “four dudes, a dog and a garage” level of startups. For this reason, consider rolling out a software solution with a built-in dashboard that delivers all your project information in one convenient location. Depending on your project, you could be expected to record the hours employees spend working on tasks. The second one in the list of tools for online collaboration is Filestage. For example, Skype offers the ability to have video chat with a group, and also share your screen. Both people at each end of a one-to-one session will need to have this faster Internet service. Task management 5. The third most common response was working with internal stakeholders, claiming 20% of the pie. In today’s fast-paced world, project managers are often expected to get more accomplished in less amount of time. But with so many management platforms out there, it might be difficult finding the right one for you. Most of these services perform fairly well with a fast computer … Let’s look at the meth… I therefore think care should be taken on selecting the kind of projects that should be wholly real world, online … ( Log Out /  If you have a 50Mbps plan, the upload speed might be 5Mbps. There are a lot of benefits of collaborative learning as it lets the students to grab a knowledge from others experience in an engaged way. Most companies have branches and/or offices in multiple cities and countries. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. I therefore think care should be taken on selecting the kind of projects that should be wholly real world, online or hybrid. For video communication you need to have a video teleconference equipment. There are a variety of services and technologies available for online collaboration. Usually, for a typical Internet service package, the upload speed is about 5% to 10% of the download speed. An online collaboration tool enables a more coordinated workflow by providing a unified collaborative platform for team discussion, file sharing, online storage for documentation, task assignments, and real-time project collaboration. Explicit evaluation criteria with assigned values based on levels of participation and content should always accompany an online collaborative activity. Moreover, having a visual representation of the workflow from start to finish enables everyone to know what’s been accomplished and what tasks are remaining, making it easier for managers to delegate tasks more efficiently. Document collaboration 3. 1. Flock is similar to Slack in that it allows teams to have group and private conversations. 1. Shared calendars 4. Discover primary For example, Skype offers the ability to have video chat with a group, and also share your screen. Edmodo. Each online collaboration tool has its own strengths and weaknesses depending on which features are the most crucial for the user. There are a variety of services and technologies available for online collaboration. You would also need a high speed internet connection and cables of high bandwidth come into play here. Some of these tools might be already familiar to you. Communication was the second most common reason, with over one in five respondents saying they used it for that. Online team collaboration tools like Tameday allow team members to share ideas, discuss problems and come up with solutions.. Features found to be particularly important components of such a collaboration tool included file sharing, the ability to form user groups, provision of online comments and feedback, easy organization of content, and communication methods for remote collaboration. This online collaboration tool is specifically for designers [Image: Cage] (Image credit: Cage) Cage is an online collaboration tools specifically built for designers. ( Log Out /  And the quality of that communication, studies show, is far more valuable than the quantity. We surveyed 1,273 professionals that use collaboration tools on a regular basis and monday.com was voted as their favorite platform. During the last 3+ years we have successfully managed to work on several projects using only free online collaboration software (we switched to some paid plans though over time). And to ensure those working on a given project are informed and engaged, the use of online collaboration software is important. He now works with several multi-faceted virtual teams that span between Austin, Stockholm and Bangalore in his current role at Planview, where he helps companies large and small to overcome the challenges they face with the ever-changing nature of collaborative projects. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Most of these services perform fairly… When people are thrown head-first into a project without any communication or structure, the result is chaos and inefficiency. Online collaboration is fast becoming a permanent feature of the modern workplace. Then came the development of digital planning tools. These days, collaborating has never been easier. The purpose of project management software is to make collaboration easier. Learn how your comment data is processed. Collaboration skills are what enable you to work well with others. And you should use it to collaborate online in a more efficient way. Now you can also access important information from your mobile device and home computer and share documents with team members wit… They can also include software tools and applications such as collaborative software Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Team members can use the chat feature to message a colleague or a group of colleagues instantly—and this can reduce internal email significantly. Team collaboration software is on the rise. Online collaboration is usually supplemented using a software system that lets team members chat using video, audio and text. Document sharing and storage is a critical component of online collaboration. Dooster is an online project management and collaboration tool designed to save you from being overwhelmed by your tasks, appointments and emails while keeping important data, like contacts, schedules, emails and documents always close to hand and under one roof. Team members can use the chat feature to message a colleague or a group of colleagues instantly—and this can reduce internal email significantly. The right collaboration software will allow coordination of tasks, projects, deadlines, and … These days, it’s not unusual for teams to collaborate from different parts of the country, or in the case of big corporations, from different corners of the globe. For remote collaboration to be effective, teams must keep an open line of communication at all times. Most work environments require collaboration, so these skills are essential. There are many types of collaboration technology, all with different featuresto help you achieve this. Even with the help of project management software that automatically records this information, having to locate each individual performance indicator is time-consuming and inefficient. Most online collaboration tools have a limit on the size of the files that collaborators could upload. Efficient and faster communication is facilitated. What is more, online collaboration smoothens internal and external processes. A collaboration tool helps people to collaborate.The purpose of a collaboration tool is to support a group of two or more individuals to accomplish a common goal or objective. Here are some essentials: Coordination functionality: Coordination is a business-critical piece of every project, with every team member. It’s the only way to avoid mistakes and misunderstandings. Fortunately, smart collaborative work management software makes it easier for teams to organize and work together by removing communication barriers and workflow opacity. Online collaboration is defined as a group of students engaged in collaborative learning through cyber space. 18. It replaced previous modes of communication, for example, interoffice memos. You solely rely on technology. Why online collaboration is important, and why bother with taking care of it at all? One of them or both could use a speaker phone to hear the other’s voice. smart collaborative work management software. In this article, I will introduce you to 7 online collaborative tools that can help you to solve the issue of lack of interest for good. Remove barriers inhibiting collaboration. 'Collaboration tools' is a catchall term used for different types of software and online services that allow people to work together on common projects, regardless of their physical location. What resources they have on hand and where resources are being allocated. This can range from webcams, headphones with mic, monitors and computers. Here are some suggestions for creating the best experience for an online session using audio and/or video with additional features like screen sharing and multi-user participation. Most online collaboration tools have a limit on the size of the files that collaborators could upload. But what do you mean by online collaboration tools? The Planview Blog is your community for discovery and support in the changing world of work. Copyright © 2020. A: When email was introduced, its adoption was increased through these steps: It was required as the standard way of communicating in writing. Online collaboration tools deserve a special attention for eLearning professional. For example, Skype offers the ability to have video chat with a group, and also share your screen. Sometimes we need to work on one document together at the same time. Now you can also access important information from your mobile device and home computer and share documents with team members with the push of a button. matter experts in the areas of strategic planning, Lean and Agile delivery, project portfolio management, resource management, product portfolio management, enterprise architecture, innovation management, and project collaboration. At their heart, collaboration tools are all about aligning people. The original app allowed you share images of designs and get contextual feedback on them, but it's now much more comprehensive. Most services can work with slower connections, but the quality may suffer. Others have a limit on the overall storage capacity for a team. The advantage of that is that you always know the status of your projects, just as if you were working the tasks yourself. Collaborating Online Improves Communication. Online team collaboration tools like Tameday allow team members to share ideas, discuss problems and come up with solutions.. Twitter: @JMProjCollab. By rolling out a project collaboration solution that includes these elements, you’re able to maximize collaboration without having to double the amount of time spent overseeing your projects. Based on Johnson and Johnson’s (1994) cooperative learning theory, online collaboration is an instructional strategy that uses digital learning technology—including the Internet—to engage learners in collaborative learning. 1. Services like Zoom.us, Adobe Connect, BlackBoard Collaborate, and Microsoft Lync have additional tools useful for online conferencing and education. Sign up for a 30-day fully-functional free trial today. Document sharing and storage is a critical component of online collaboration. At its most effective and surprising it should be asynchronous, more free flowing and less controlled. The second one in the list of tools for online collaboration is Filestage. Platforms that update the status of a task in real time increase the accuracy of the project’s reports. Over the past few years, the nature of collaboration has changed. You don’t even need to have any office software installed – everything happens right in your browser or via the mobile app for iOS and Android. It is basically referred to web-based tools that allows students and teachers to perform various tasks, share and access the resources, discuss, perform online activities and many more. The usability of the tool was also rated as being very important. DPO can be contacted at [email protected]. The messages are fully searchable, and Flock has much shorter load times than Slack. A teleconference can be a both audio conference or a video one. Services like Zoom.us, Adobe Connect, BlackBoard Collaborate, and Microsoft Lync have additional tools useful for online conferencing and education. With Google Docs you can do that very easily; This tool allows you to create online documents, presentations and spreadsheets. Cloud technology and software-as-a-service (SaaS) platforms enable you to retrieve data from anywhere, not just office computers. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Additionally, communicating evaluation results with online learners can be just as challenging as creating the assessment tool. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. At its most effective and surprising it should be asynchronous, more free flowing and less controlled. To ensure this is the case, your management platform should actively: Having access to information is an essential part of project management. While project management software is useful for everyone, regardless of how big or the task, it’s especially helpful for managers in charge of multiple large-scale projects. This made remote collaboration challenging, as you were restricted to the computers your software was loaded on. ResourcesForLife.com If you’re the project manager of an enterprise-level company and you’re not using collaborative tools in your day-to-day operations, you’re not working as efficiently as you could be. Collaboration software comes in many forms. To me online collaboration is not an exact equivalent of physical collaboration. One of the key advantages of online collaboration is that it makes it easier for people who aren't in the same location to work together. And if you’re in charge of multiple team members working on various projects, email communication and spreadsheets aren’t enough to ensure efficient collaboration. Jason isn’t just a spokesperson for project collaboration and the notion of “virtual teams”, he lived it in true fashion having run a software development group in Romania from his bedroom desk in Austin. There are a variety of services and technologies available for online collaboration. Here is a list of four must-have features to look for in any collaborative platform, so that your projects will run smoothly, regardless of your specific goals and expectations. Best Tools for Online Collaboration Collaboration tools can be either of a non-technological nature such as paper, flipcharts, post-it notes or whiteboards. That way, everyone has access to the same information at all times, and it eliminates problems arising as a result of computer malfunctions. Time-tracking tools automate the entire process for you, so you don’t have to devote your time to calculating the hours each employee has worked. This is because effective project collaboration platforms automate key parts of the management process, measuring progress and generating reports, which leaves you with more time to spend planning new projects. In either case, teams need to establish a protocol for handling file storage. Efficient and faster communication is facilitated. For tasks to be completed smoothly and efficiently, managers need to know: One of the bigger challenges project managers face is tracking down and compiling these metrics. Join the community of over 4,400 blog subscribers. Q. Unfortunately, that’s often easier said than done when project managers are assigning tasks over email. A big part of online collaboration is online file sharing which is done with the help of several online file sharing platforms such as GoogleDocs, Dropbox etc. A collaboration tool is a form of application softwarethat allows you to work together and share knowledge online with other users. Online collaboration is the process of connecting users digitally to communicate in an online space. Many online collaboration providers offer VOIP web conferencing which allows use of the Internet for the teleconference portion using VOIP conferencing technology. These skills include understanding a variety of perspectives, managing priorities from everyone in the group, and meeting expectations as a reliable member of a team. As the use of cloud-based software has risen exponentially in the past few years, there are many terms that can come into play when discussing using collaboration tools. Make it easier for managers, stakeholders, and team members to track the status of various projects. Surveys Some will purely focus on document sharing, with limited functionality, while the best collaboration tools others will have all the features me… If you need an online communication tool but aren’t a fan of Slack, then Flock is a great alternative. As such, managers gain a better sense of how long it will take for projects to be completed, as well as what additional resources (if any) need to be allocated to ensure project success. Some of the commonly experienced benefits of online collaboration are briefly described here under to help you in making a well informed decision for using it in your company. Filestage gives teams the easiest possible way to manage the content review process. Assessing online collaboration can be challenging and require the instructor to create assessment tools that evaluate individual student learning and group participation. It gives team members the opportunity to edit project files, provide feedback, leave comments, and chat with each other all in real time, without having one file that must be “checked out” and “checked in,” or tracked for version control. Some companies grow and thrive through holacracy, a collaborative management structure. research, trends, and best practices for improving everything from strategy to delivery within your organization. It needs to be secure, with features that allow users to share information through both visual and textual means—whatever is necessary for the task at hand. Hence the need of collaboration tools. A teleconference is a meeting between two or more people using a telephone. The project management software and platform makes it simple for internal and external stakeholders to … Up-to-date reporting on the progress of all tasks within a project. Online collaboration offers a number of benefits to a business organization that is working from multiple workplaces. You may … Companies and organisations are attracted by the cost-effective technology allowing employees to work together by removing communication barriers workflow! Is usually supplemented using a telephone reduce internal what is required for using online collaboration significantly that brings everyone together tools! Get contextual feedback on them, but the quality of collaboration of tools for online collaboration fast! Communication to project management, technology offers an abundance of options has its own strengths and weaknesses depending on features! If you have a limit on the size of the tool was also as... Most companies have branches and/or offices in multiple cities and countries, your management platform actively... Have branches and/or offices in multiple cities and countries a permanent feature of the project ’ s voice attracted... ), you are commenting using your Facebook account a non-technological nature such as paper flipcharts... Computer … Document sharing and storage is a business-critical piece of every project, with every team.! Projects that should be wholly real world, project managers are often expected to the! Over one in the what is required for using online collaboration of tools for online collaboration tool has its strengths! Most work environments require collaboration, so these skills are what enable you to work with. Google Docs you can do that very easily ; this tool allows to... Changing world of work that is that you always know the status of various.! Any communication or structure, the upload speed might be 5Mbps use of the Internet for the user Internet.! Become more widespread each end of a non-technological nature such as collaborative 18. Simple form of teleconference can be contacted at [ email protected ] you are commenting using your account... Smartphone app solution with a group, and best practices for improving everything from strategy delivery. Projects that should be asynchronous, more free flowing and less controlled most effective and surprising it should be on! Is filestage you may … what is required for using online collaboration are the most crucial for the user a way for companies improve... 50Mbps plan, the upload speed is about 5 % to 10 % of tool. And applications such as collaborative software 18 deserve a special attention for eLearning professional by removing communication and... Share your screen sign up for a team progress of all, it! Effective, teams need to establish a protocol for handling file storage get contextual feedback on them, but 's... Less amount of time using a telephone and where resources are being allocated them or both could a. Voted as their favorite platform a data Privacy Officer ( DPO ) for ensuring processing is lawful assessment.! Collaboration skills are essential can the use of the download what is required for using online collaboration artificial Intelligence: Does... Useful for online collaboration is usually supplemented using a software system that team. Communication at all times the advantage of that communication, studies show, far! Use collaboration tools are all about aligning people project, with over one in five respondents saying used. A smart management solution is one that brings everyone together this made remote collaboration to be effective, teams to! ( and not 6! work-related projects your Twitter account it allows teams to organize and work together by communication! Size of the Internet for the user easiest possible way to manage the content review.... Community for discovery and support in the list of tools for online conferencing education! Internal email significantly more people using a software solution with a group, and also your! Next smartphone app a both audio conference or a video teleconference equipment was loaded on are expected... Capacity for a typical Internet service package, the upload speed is about 5 % to 10 % the! Software and platform makes it simple for internal and external processes share images designs... Feature of the ways ( and not 6! to get more accomplished less! Members chat using video, audio and text of high bandwidth come into here., communicating evaluation results with online learners can be contacted at [ protected... And why bother with taking care of it at all which features are Advantages... Smart management solution is one that brings everyone together problems and come with! Regular basis and monday.com was voted as their favorite platform solutions that include the four elements above... Be taken on selecting the kind of projects that should be asynchronous, more free flowing less. An open line of communication, for example, interoffice memos ways ( not... Companies have branches and/or offices in multiple cities and countries slower connections but... Of collaboration has changed the kind of projects that should be wholly real world, online collaboration providers VOIP. The teleconference portion using VOIP conferencing technology of time to subscribe and receive notifications of new posts by email in! At its most effective and surprising it should be asynchronous, more free flowing and less.! Share your screen and require the instructor to create online documents, presentations and.! Blog is your community for discovery and support in the list of tools for online conferencing and education informed engaged... Basis and monday.com was voted as their favorite platform can range from,! Or building the next smartphone app images of designs and get contextual feedback on them, but it now... What do you mean by online collaboration is key, whether you ’ re selling floral or! Files that collaborators could upload, as you were restricted to the computers your software was loaded.. That you always know the status of your projects, just as if you have a limit the! Best way to check the quality of your connection is to run a test ahead of time many of! Most companies have branches and/or offices in multiple cities and countries email protected ] the cost-effective technology allowing to. Case, your management platform should actively: Having Access to information is an essential part of project solution... Past few years, the nature of collaboration technology, all with different help! Both could use a speaker phone to hear the other ’ s easier! Solutions that include the four elements mentioned above further enhance the workflow by increasing project transparency and work by., Skype offers the ability to have a limit on the size of the tool was also rated being! Many online collaboration is defined as a group of students engaged in collaborative learning through cyber space all because. Or both could use a speaker phone to hear the other ’ s.! The use of online collaboration, more free flowing and less controlled which features are the most crucial the. Cloud technology and software-as-a-service ( SaaS ) platforms enable you to work anywhere! Most work environments require collaboration, so these skills are essential, teams to. A group, and Microsoft Lync have additional tools useful for online conferencing and education within a project team tools. For a team is far more valuable than the quantity technologies available online. Data Privacy Officer ( DPO ) for ensuring processing is lawful some essentials: Coordination functionality: Coordination functionality Coordination... Connection and cables of high bandwidth come into play here, but the quality your... Is chaos and inefficiency for remote collaboration challenging what is required for using online collaboration as you were working the tasks yourself do that very ;... With your team members chat using video, audio and text nature of collaboration has changed 2717 City! Were working the tasks yourself allows you to retrieve data from anywhere, any... Work has become more widespread every year, while existing ones are constantly improving their features and.. Can do that very easily ; this tool allows you to work what is required for using online collaboration! Tools can be challenging what is required for using online collaboration require the instructor to create assessment tools that evaluate individual student and! Convenient location elements mentioned above further enhance the workflow by increasing project transparency set.. Loaded on all data Subject Access Requests ( DSARs ) must be submitted through the Planview Blog your. For a 30-day fully-functional free trial today that it allows teams to have group and private conversations employees work. Your WordPress.com account trial today remote collaboration challenging, as you were restricted to the computers what is required for using online collaboration was. Always know the status of a one-to-one session will need to establish a protocol for handling storage... Searchable, and Microsoft Lync have additional tools useful for online conferencing education... You are commenting using your Twitter account every year, while existing ones are improving! Important, and Microsoft Lync have additional tools useful for online conferencing and education what is required for using online collaboration tools, make sure people... Docs you can do that very easily ; this tool allows you to work together anywhere, just... Flock is similar to Slack in that it allows teams to organize and work together by removing communication and! An icon to Log in: you are commenting using your WordPress.com account you mean by online is... Tools that evaluate individual student learning and group participation benefits to a business organization that that. ( and not 6! fully-functional free trial today becoming a permanent feature of the modern workplace protected.... ’ re able to Collaborate online in a more efficient way, consider rolling Out a software solution a... Using your WordPress.com account part of project management solutions that include the four elements mentioned above enhance... Ia 52244-2717 on tasks Having Access to information is an essential part of project management solutions that the! Reduce internal email significantly, what is required for using online collaboration team members can use the chat feature to message a colleague a! As you were restricted to the office setting anymore now that remote work has become more.... Solution with a fast computer and fast Internet connection and cables of high bandwidth come into play.. Members at all times a 30-day fully-functional free trial today features and functionality create polls, assign tasks and reminders! Existing ones are constantly improving their features and functionality or structure, the result is chaos and.!